Clock and I/O Placement - 2024.1 English

Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Implementation (UG904)

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2024.1 English

After design rule checking, the Vivado placer places clock and I/O cells before placing other logic cells. Clock and I/O cells are placed concurrently because they are often related through complex placement rules specific to the targeted AMD device. For UltraScale, UltraScale+, and Versal devices, the placer also assigns clock tracks and pre-routes the clocks. Register cells with IOB properties are processed during this phase to determine which registers with an IOB value of TRUE should be mapped to I/O logic sites. If the placer fails to honor an IOB property of TRUE, a critical warning is issued.

Placer Targets

The placer targets at this stage of placement are:

  • I/O ports and their related logic
  • Global clock buffers
  • Clock management tiles (MMCMs and PLLs)
  • Gigabit Transceiver (GT) cells

Placing Unfixed Logic

When placing unfixed logic during this stage of placement, the placer adheres to physical constraints, such as LOC properties and Pblock assignments. It also validates existing LOC constraints against the netlist connectivity and device sites. Certain IP (such as Memory IP and GTs) are generated with device-specific placement constraints.

Important: Due to the device I/O architecture, a LOC property often constrains cells other than the cell to which LOC has been applied. A LOC on an input port also fixes the location of its related I/O buffer, IDELAY, and ILOGIC. Conflicting LOC constraints cannot be applied to individual cells in the input path. The same applies for outputs and GT-related cells.

Clock Resources Placement Rules

Clock resources must follow the placement rules described in the 7 Series FPGAs Clocking Resources User Guide (UG472), UltraScale Architecture Clocking Resources User Guide (UG572) and Versal Adaptive SoC Clocking Resources Architecture Manual (AM003). For example, an input that drives a global clock buffer must be located at a clock-capable I/O site, must be located in the same upper or lower half of the device for 7 series devices, and in the same clock region for UltraScale devices. These clock placement rules are also validated against the logical netlist connectivity and device sites.

When Clock and I/O Placement Fails

If the Vivado placer fails to find a solution for the clock and I/O placement, the placer reports the placement rules that were violated, and briefly describes the affected cells.

Placement can fail because of several reasons, including:

  • Clock tree issues caused by conflicting constraints
  • Clock tree issues that are too complex for the placer to resolve
  • RAM and DSP block placement conflicts with other constraints, such as Pblocks
  • Over-utilization of resources
  • I/O bank requirements and rules

In some cases, the Vivado placer provisionally places cells at sites, and attempts to place other cells as it tries to solve the placement problem. The provisional placements often pinpoint the source of clock and I/O placement failure. Manually placing a cell that failed provisional placement might help placement converge.

Tip: Use place_ports to run the clock and I/O placement step first. Then run place_design. If port placement fails, the placement is saved to memory to allow failure analysis. For more information, run place_ports -help from the Vivado Tcl command prompt.

For more information about UltraScale clock tree placement and routing, see the UltraFast Design Methodology Guide for FPGAs and SoCs (UG949).