pragma HLS pipeline - 2022.2 English

Vitis High-Level Synthesis User Guide (UG1399)

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2022.2 English


Reduces the initiation interval (II) for a function or loop by allowing the concurrent execution of operations. The default type of pipeline is defined by the config_compile -pipeline_style command, but can be overridden in the PIPELINE pragma or directive.

A pipelined function or loop can process new inputs every <N> clock cycles, where <N> is the II of the loop or function. An II of 1 processes a new input every clock cycle. You can specify the initiation interval through the use of the II option for the pragma.

As a default behavior, with the PIPELINE pragma or directive Vitis HLS will generate the minimum II for the design according to the specified clock period constraint. The emphasis will be on meeting timing, rather than on achieving II unless the II option is specified.

If the Vitis HLS tool cannot create a design with the specified II, it issues a warning and creates a design with the lowest possible II.

You can then analyze this design with the warning message to determine what steps must be taken to create a design that satisfies the required initiation interval.

Pipelining a loop allows the operations of the loop to be implemented in a concurrent manner as shown in the following figure. In the figure, (A) shows the default sequential operation where there are three clock cycles between each input read (II=3), and it requires eight clock cycles before the last output write is performed. (B) shows the pipelined operations that show one cycle between reads (II=1), and 4 cycles to the last write.

Figure 1. Loop Pipeline
Important: Loop carry dependencies can prevent pipelining. Use the DEPENDENCE pragma or directive to provide additional information to overcome loop-carry dependencies, and allow loops to be pipelined (or pipelined with lower intervals).


Place the pragma in the C source within the body of the function or loop.

#pragma HLS pipeline II=<int> off rewind style=<value>


Specifies the desired initiation interval for the pipeline. The HLS tool tries to meet this request. Based on data dependencies, the actual result might have a larger initiation interval.
Optional keyword. Turns off pipeline for a specific loop or function. This can be used to disable pipelining for a specific loop when config_compile -pipeline_loops is used to globally pipeline loops.
Optional keyword. Enables rewinding as described in Rewinding Pipelined Loops for Performance. This enables continuous loop pipelining with no pause between one execution of the loop ending and the next execution starting. Rewinding is effective only if there is one single loop (or a perfect loop nest) inside the top-level function. The code segment before the loop:
  • Is considered as initialization.
  • Is executed only once in the pipeline.
  • Cannot contain any conditional operations (if-else).
    Tip: This feature is only supported for pipelined loops; it is not supported for pipelined functions.
style=<stp | frp | flp>
Specifies the type of pipeline to use for the specified function or loop. For more information on pipeline styles refer to Flushing Pipelines and Pipeline Types. The types of pipelines include:
Stall pipeline. Runs only when input data is available otherwise it stalls. This is the default setting, and is the type of pipeline used by Vitis HLS for both loop and function pipelining. Use this when a flushable pipeline is not required. For example, when there are no performance or deadlock issue due to stalls.
This option defines the pipeline as a flushable pipeline. This type of pipeline typically consumes more resources and/or can have a larger II because resources cannot be shared among pipeline iterations.
Free-running, flushable pipeline. Runs even when input data is not available. Use this when you need better timing due to reduced pipeline control signal fanout, or when you need improved performance to avoid deadlocks. However, this pipeline style can consume more power as the pipeline registers are clocked even if there is no data.
Important: This is a hint not a hard constraint. The tool checks design conditions for enabling pipelining. Some loops might not conform to a particular style and the tool reverts to the default style (stp) if necessary.


In this example, function func is pipelined with an initiation interval of 1.

void func { a, b, c, d} {
  #pragma HLS pipeline II=1