Improving Logic Levels - 2024.1 English

UltraFast Design Methodology Guide for FPGAs and SoCs (UG949)

Document ID
UG949
Release Date
2024-05-30
Version
2024.1 English

Throughout the design cycle, you must verify that the logic level distribution fits the clock frequency goals for the target AMD device family and device speed grade. Although a limited number of paths with a high number of logic levels do not always introduce a timing closure challenge, you can improve the timing QoR by optimizing the longest paths in the design with the Vivado synthesis retiming option.

Using the retiming option globally is usually runtime intensive and can negatively impact power. Therefore, AMD recommends that you identify a specific hierarchy with violations on paths with a high number of logic levels after synthesis or with optimal placement. When the paths in the fanin or fanout of the longest paths have fewer logic levels and are contained within a small or medium hierarchical module, you can use the BLOCK_SYNTH.RETIMING block-level synthesis strategy.

The following figure shows a critical paths with five LUTs, constrained by a 600 MHz clock. The REG2 destination flop drives a timing path with a single LUT that is included one hierarchy up from REG2.

Figure 1. Schematic Showing Critical Path with Five Logic Levels

In addition to using the Schematic window in the Vivado IDE, you can use the report_design_analysis -logic_level_distribution command to review the distribution of logic levels for specific paths. This allows you to determine how many paths need to be rebalanced to improve the timing QoR.

You can use the retiming_forward and retiming_backward attributes available in Vivado synthesis to control the optimization on a specific register or a path. Using these attributes applies retiming optimization on a specific set of paths rather than on the top module or submodules, which reduces the area overhead. You can apply these attributes in the RTL or in the XDC file. For more information, including usage and restrictions, see the Vivado Design Suite User Guide: Synthesis (UG901).

The following figure shows 58 paths with five logic levels within the inst1/inst2 hierarchy constrained with the 600 MHz clock and 32 paths with only one logic level.

Figure 2. Logic Level Distribution with Default Synthesis Optimization

Vivado synthesis can rebalance the logic levels by moving the registers in the low logic level paths into the high logic level paths. In this example, you can add the following constraint to the synthesis XDC file to perform retiming on the inst1/inst2 hierarchy:

set_property BLOCK_SYNTH.RETIMING 1 [get_cells inst1/inst2]

After rerunning synthesis with the same global settings and the updated XDC file, you can run regular timing analysis on the inst1/inst2 timing paths or rerun the report_design_analysis command to verify that the longest paths have fewer logic levels, as shown in the following figure. The critical path is now REG0 > 3 LUTs > REG2 (backward retimed), and the path from REG2 to REG4 has three logic levels.

Figure 3. Logic Level Distribution with Retiming Enabled for Synthesis Optimization