Single Sensor MIPI Capture - 2020.2 English

Versal ACAP VCK190 Base Targeted Reference Design (UG1442)

Document ID
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2020.2 English
A capture pipeline receives frames from an external source and writes it into memory. The single sensor MIPI CSI-2 receiver capture pipeline is shown in the following figure.
Figure 1. MIPI CSI Video Capture Pipeline
This pipeline consists of six components, of which four are controlled by the APU via an AXI-Lite based register interface; one is controlled by the APU via an I2C register interface, and one is configured statically.
  • The Sony IMX274 is a 1/2.5 inch CMOS digital image sensor with an active imaging pixel array of 3864H x2196V. The image sensor is controlled via an I2C interface using an AXI I2C controller in the PL. It is mounted on a FMC daughter card and has a MIPI output interface that is connected to the MIPI CSI-2 RX subsystem inside the PL. For more information refer to the LI-IMX274MIPI-FMC_datasheet.
  • The MIPI CSI-2 receiver subsystem (CSI Rx) includes a MIPI D-PHY core that connects four data lanes and one clock lane to the sensor on the FMC card. It implements a CSI-2 receive interface according to the MIPI CSI-2 standard v2.0 with underlying MIPI D-PHY standard v1.2. The subsystem captures images from the IMX274 sensor in RAW10 format and outputs AXI4-Stream video data. For more information see the MIPI CSI-2 Receiver Subsystem Product Guide (PG232).
  • The AXI subset converter, see AXI4-Stream Infrastructure IP Suite LogiCORE IP Product Guide (PG085), is a statically-configured IP core that converts the raw 10-bit (RAW10) AXI4-Stream input data to raw 8-bit (RAW8) AXI4-Stream output data by truncating the two least significant bits (LSB) of each data word. At four pixels per clock (4ppc), the AXIS width is 32 bits.
  • The Image Single Processing IP available in the Vitis vision librarires ( implements the following functions.
    • The Badpixelcorrection module removes the defective pixels in the image as an image sensor may have a certain number of defective/bad pixels that may be the result of manufacturing faults or variations in pixel voltage levels based on temperature or exposure.
    • The Gain control module improves the overall brightness of the input image by applying a multiplicative gain (weight) for red and blue channel to the input bayerized image.
    • The Demosaicing module converts a single plane Bayer pattern output, from the digital camera sensors to a color image.
    • The histogram module computes the histogram of given input image. The normalization module changes the range of pixel intensity values. Both modules are used to improve the contrast in the image.

      See for more details

    • The ISP IP receives the RAW AXI4-Stream input data and interpolates the missing color components for every pixel to generate a 24-bit, 8 bits per pixel (8 bpc) RGB output image transported via AXI4-Stream. At 4 ppc, the AXIS width is 96-bit. A GPIO from the PS is used to reset the IP between resolution changes.
  • The video processing subsystem (VPSS), see Video Processing Subsystem Product Guide (PG231), is a collection of video processing IP subcores. This instance uses the scaler only configuration which provides scaling, color space conversion, and chroma resampling functionality. The VPSS takes AXI4-Stream input data in 24-bit RGB format and converts it to a 16-bit, 8bpc YUV 4:2:2 output format. The following figure shows AXIS data interface at 4ppc. A GPIO pin from the PS is used to reset the subsystem between resolution changes.
    Figure 2. AXI-Stream Data Bus Encoding
  • The video frame buffer, see Video Frame Buffer Read and Video Frame Buffer Write LogiCORE IP Product Guide (PG278) takes YUV 4:2:2 sub-sampled AXI4-Stream input data and converts it to AXI4-MM format which is written to memory as 16-bit packed YUYV. The AXI-MM interface is connected to the system DDR via NOC. For each video frame transfer, an interrupt is generated. A GPIO is used to reset the IP between resolution changes.
All the IPs in this pipeline are configured to transport 4ppc @ 150 MHz, enabling up to 3840x2160 resolution at 60 frames per second (fps).
  • Time to transfer one frame: (3840 + 560) x (2160 + 90) / (150 MHz * 4ppc) = 0.0165 ms
  • Number of frames transferred per second = 1/0.0165 = 60 frames
Note: In this calculation the vertical blanking accounts for 90 pixels per line and the horizontal blanking for 560 lines per video frame.
The video resolution, frame format and frame rate are set via register writes through the AXI-Lite interface of the IPs at run-time. The drivers for the above blocks provide APIs to set these values in a user application.
  • For the pass-through design (no accelerator) user can choose between 720p60, 1080p60, 2160p30, and 2160p60.
  • For the 2D filter PL accelerator user can choose between 720p60, 1080p60, 2160p30 and 2160p60.
  • For the 2D filter AIE accelerator resolution is fixed at 720p60.